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ACA2K Egypt Node

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ACA2K Egypt Team

Egypt ACA2K Country Node

Prof. Moatasem El-Gheriani

Egypt research team member, Alexandria University Law School, Alexandria, Egypt

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Dr. Bassem Awad

Egypt research team member, Judge, Alexandria, Egypt

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Dr. Perihan Abou Zeid

Egypt research team member, Faculty of Legal Studies and International Relations, Pharos University, Alexandria (PUA), Egypt

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ACA2K Egypt Country Rationale (Back to top)

Egypt has been a centre of learning and learning materials since ancient times, from the days of the establishment of the historic Library of Alexandria. The tradition of concern with access to knowledge (A2K) issues continues today through the work, among others, of Bibliotheca Alexandrina, which hosted an important access to knowledge (A2K) meeting in 2006.

The Egyptian government is an active proponent of the WIPO Development Agenda, and a key player within the African Group that is part of the WIPO Friends of Development grouping of countries. The Egypt delegation to WIPO made a powerful submission to the April 2005 WIPO IIM on the Development Agenda, submitting, among other things, that:

"...we welcome and appreciate the ongoing positive cooperation between Egypt and WIPO, and look forward to further enhance it in the future. On the other hand, there is a need to renovate WIPO's methodology in providing its technical assistance, in order for the latter to serve as a positive and effective component in the achievement of the national policy objectives of the developing and least developed countries. This will not be attained unless such assistance is provided on a clearer basis of transparency and coherence. In addition, it should effectively address means to maximize the benefits of the developing and least developed countries from the rights and flexibilities provided to them in the relevant multilateral agreements" (Permanent Mission of Egypt to Geneva, 2005).

Thus, it is clear that the Egyptian government is a strong proponent of maximum use of available intellectual property legal flexibilities for developmental purposes. The Egyptian government also participated in the Bibliotecha Alexandrina workshop on access to knowledge in 2006, entitled "New Tools for the Dissemination of Knowledge and the Promotion of Innovation and Creativity" (Bibliotheca Alexandrina, 2006; IP Watch, 2006).

The Egyptian government has in recent years taken steps to attempt to use available limitations and exceptions for copyright. For instance, Article 148 of the country's 2002 Protection of Intellectual Property Rights Act contains a provision that provides for the a rights-holder's exclusive right to translate a work into Arabic to cease "unless the author or the translator assume such right directly or through an intermediary, within three years calculated from the date of first publication of the original or translated work." Bibliotheca Alexandrina is active in the digitisation of learning materials, via projects such as the DigiArab initiative and the Arabic and Middle Eastern Electronic Library (AMEEL).Through this work and other efforts at building online access to knowledge, BA has found itself needing to advocate for more enabling copyright rules for the online environment (IP Watch, 2006).

Research Outputs (Back to top)

Legislation (Back to top)
Secondary Literature


Al-Beshry, T. The Egyptian jurisdiction between independence and dependence (2006) 2ed Dar Al-Shorouk Al-Dawleya, Cairo.

Badrawy, H. and Al-Saghir, H. Copyright in the Egyptian law: an analysis from a development perspective (2008) (in Arabic).

Bibliotheca Alexandrina 'New tools for the dissemination of knowledge and the promotion of innovation and creativity' Seminar (2006).

Bibliotheca Alexandrina Access to knowledge (2008).

Bibliotheca Alexandrina Access to knowledge toolkit I (December 2009) 2ed edited by Hala Essalmawi.

Fahmy, K. Software protection in the Egyptian IP Act (2005) Dar Al-Gamaa Al-Gadida, Alexandria.

IP Watch 'Inside views: Egypt seminar highlights copyright laws’ impact on library access' (14 September 2006).

Lotfy, M.H. Copyright (2000) Dar Al-Nesr Al-Zahabi, Cairo.

Lotfy, M.H. The impact of the TRIPs Agreement on Arab legislation (2002) Dar Al-Nesr Al-Zahabi, Cairo.

Maamoun, A. and Abdel Sadek, M.S. Copyright and neighbouring rights (2006/2007) Dar Al-Nahda Al-Arabeya, Cairo.

Permanent Mission of Egypt to Geneva 'Statement of Egypt' (2005) Intersessional Intergovernmental Meeting on WIPO Development Agenda, 11-13 April. Available at [Accessed 1 July 2007].

Rizk, N. and Shaver, L. (eds) Access to knowledge in Egypt: new research on intellectual property, innovation and development (2010) Bloomsbury, Academic, London.



Links (Back to top)

  • Access to Knowledge for Development Centre (A2K4D), American University in Cairo (AUC)
  • Bibliotheca Alexandrina
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